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Cooke, Clarence H. (1938) "Luakaha" Bishop Museum (ms).

Coulter, John Wesley (1935) A Gazetteer of the Territory of Hawaii University of Hawaii Research Publications No. 11, Honolulu: University of Hawaii.

‘I‘i, John Papa (1959) Fragments of Hawaiian History Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. ‘I‘i was raised in the traditional style as an attendant to Kamehameha II. He later served as an influential member of the court of Kamehameha III, and held several public offices until his death in 1870. His is one of few intimate records of life during the early days of Honolulu. Puakea Nogelmeier states that there is much more to ‘I‘i's writings than were published in this volume, but that remainder lies untranslated.
Selection regarding Kamehameha's planting in Nu‘uanu: pp. 68-8.

Kamakau, Samuel M. (1991) Tales and Traditions of the People of Old - Na Mo‘olelo a ka Po‘e Kahiko Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

Kamakau, Samuel M. (1992) Ruling Chiefs of Hawai‘i Honolulu: The Kamehameha Schools Press.

Pukui, Mary Kawena (1983) Olelo No'eau: Hawaiian Proverbs and Poetical Sayings Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

Pukui, Mary Kawena Samuel H. Elbert, & Esther Mo‘okini (1974) Place Names of Hawai‘i, revised and expanded edition. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Silva, Carol (1991) Legend of Kauakiowao and Kauawaahila Historic Hawai‘i, Vol. 17 No. 5 (May 1991): 12-13.

Silva, Carol (1995) Historical and Cultural Report: Ha‘ena State Park, Halele‘a, Kaua‘i Honolulu: State Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of State Parks.

Sterling, Elspeth P. and Catherine C. Summers, "Sites of Oahu" Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1978. Many of the stories told by informants, as well as snippets of tales from other texts, are found in this compilation.


Stangenwald, Hugo (ca. 1853) The Kamehameha Royal Family Daguerreotype. From the Bishop Museum website.

Photographs of the Hawaiian royalty are drawn from the Star Bulletin website.

Deacon, Paul British Warships From The Napoleonic Guide:

Kinau: "La Princesse Kinau soeur du Roi Taméhaméha III. Gouvernante de l’ile Oahu." Barthélémy Lauvergne, Bonite Expedition, 1836. This rare painting, said to be the only surviving image of Kinau, is borrowed from the on-line catalogue of Hordern House, a rare books and manuscripts dealer in Australia.

Map of Luakaha, showing the "old ruin": Luakaha, Nu‘uanu Valley Kona O‘ahu, including also that portion of Kahapaakai conveyed to the crown by joint resolution, 1852. For the Hawaiian Government Survey and the Commissioners of Crown Lands, C.J. Lyons, Surveyor, November 20, 1874.

All other photographs by RDK Herman, Pacific Worlds.


Kamehameha Schools, Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali



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