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Sources & Links



Handy, E.S.C. (1940) The Hawaiian Planter Vol. 1 Honolulu: Bishop Museum Bulletin no. 161. Cited in Sterling & Summers (op. cit): 294.

‘I‘i, John Papa (1959) Fragments of Hawaiian History Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. ‘I‘i was raised in the traditional style as an attendant to Kamehameha II. He later served as an influential member of the court of Kamehameha III, and held several public offices until his death in 1870. His is one of few intimate records of life during the early days of Honolulu. Puakea Nogelmeier states that there is much more to ‘I‘i's writings than were published in this volume, but that remainder is still untranslated.
Selection regarding Kamehameha's planting in Nu‘uanu: pp. 68-8.

Kamakau, Samuel M. (1991) Tales and Traditions of the People of Old - Na Mo‘olelo a ka Po‘e Kahiko Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

Kamakau, Samuel M. (1992) Ruling Chiefs of Hawai‘i Honolulu: The Kamehameha Schools Press.

Pukui, Mary Kawena (1983) Olelo No'eau: Hawaiian Proverbs and Poetical Sayings Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

Pukui, Mary Kawena Samuel H. Elbert, & Esther Mo‘okini (1974) Place Names of Hawai‘i, revised and expanded edition. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Silva, Carol (1991) Legend of Kauakiowao and Kauawaahila Historic Hawai‘i, Vol. 17 No. 5 (May 1991): 12-13.

Silva, Carol (1995) Historical and Cultural Report: Ha‘ena State Park, Halele‘a, Kaua‘i Honolulu: State Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of State Parks.

Sterling, Elspeth P. and Catherine C. Summers, "Sites of Oahu" Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1978. Many of the stories told by informants, as well as snippets of tales from other texts, are found in this compilation.


Achatinella sowerbyana (O‘ahu land shell) image borrowed from the Bishop Museum's Backyard Aliens website:

Bishop, S.E. (1888) Detail Map of Nuuanu Valley, Honolulu Oahu, Showing Watercourses and Water Rights Hawaiian Government Survey, 1:24,000.

Choris, Louis "Kamehameha in red vest" von Kotzebue expedition, 1816.

Fitzpatrick, Gary L., with Riley Moffat (1986) The Early Mapping of Hawai‘i Palapala'aina; vol. 1. Honolulu: Editions Limited. This excellent work compiles many old maps of the islands.

Kane, Herb "Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali" is borrowed from a website on this event hosted by the Kamehameha Schools, cited above.

Kaniakapupu Field School, 1999-2000, Map of Kaniakapupu University of Hawai‘i at Manoa & Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Mapped by J. Field, G. Escott, J.L. Perry, J. Lee, W. Tolleson, E. Ozkan, and field school participants.

Lyons, C.J., Surveyor (1852) Luakaha, Nu‘uanu Valley Kona O‘ahu, including also that portion of Kahapaakai conveyed to the crown by joint resolution, 1852. For the Hawaiian Government Survey and the Commissioners of Crown Lands, November 20, 1874. [Map of Luakaha, showing the "old ruin"].

Photographs of the old ‘Iolani Palace courtesy of the Hawai‘i State Archives.

Photographs of the Hawaiian royalty are drawn from the Star Bulletin website.

All other photographs by RDK Herman, Pacific Worlds.


Huapala - Hawaiian Music and Hula Archives:
Source for "He Lei no Kapi‘olani." Visit this wonderful resource to see a list of Hawaiian songs, old and new.

The Disappearance of Native Hawaiian Snails
Bishop Museum "Backyard Aliens" website:


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