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Sources & Links



Bille, Steen (1863) "Extract from Steen Bille's report on the voyage of the Danish corvette 'Galathea' round the world in the years 1845, 1846, 1847" (Translated from the Danish by F. Banning) and reprinted in The Friend for January, March and May. Cited in Sterling & Summers, op. cit. p. 307.

Cooke, Clarence H. (1938) "Luakaha" Manuscript, Bishop Museum Archives.

"Holiday Observances" Hawaiian Annual, 1930: 102-105. Cited in in Sterling & Summers, op. cit.: 308.

Kamakau, Samuel M. (1991) Tales and Traditions of the People of Old - Na Mo‘olelo a ka Po‘e Kahiko Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

Kamakau, Samuel M. (1992) Ruling Chiefs of Hawai‘i Honolulu: The Kamehameha Schools Press.

Kenn, Charles (no date) "Hawaiian Places: Luakaha - Kaniakapupu" Manuscript, Bishop Museum Archives.

Parker, Rev. H. H. "John 'I'i" in Cooke, Amos Starr (1937) The Chiefs' Children's school: a record compiled from the diary and letters of Amos Starr Cooke and Juliette Montague Cooke, by their granddaughter Mary Atherton Richards. Honolulu: Printed by Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Cited in in Sterling & Summers, op. cit.: 309.

Pukui, Mary Kawena Samuel H. Elbert, & Esther Mo‘okini (1974) Place Names of Hawai‘i, revised and expanded edition. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Raphaelson, Rayna (1925) The Kamehameha Highway: 80 Miles of Romance Honolulu: Percy M. Pond. Cited in Sterling & Summers, op. cit.

Sterling, Elspeth P. and Catherine C. Summers (1978) Sites of Oahu Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.


"Kamehameha in red vest" painted by Louis Choris, of the Kotzebue expedition, 1816.

Photographs of the Hawaiian royalty are drawn from the Star Bulletin website.

Herb Kane's painting of the Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali is borrowed from a website on this event hosted by the Kamehameha Schools, cited above.

Photographs of the old ‘Iolani Palace courtesy of the Hawai‘i State Archives.

Map of Kaniakapupu: Kaniakapupu Field School, 1999-2000. University of Hawai‘i at Manoa & Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Mapped by J. Field, G. Escott, J.L. Perry, J. Lee, W. Tolleson, E. Ozkan, and field school participants.

Lyons, C.J., Surveyor (1874) Luakaha, Nu‘uanu Valley Kona O‘ahu, including also that portion of Kahapaakai conveyed to the crown by joint resolution, 1852. For the Hawaiian Government Survey and the Commissioners of Crown Lands.

All other photographs by RDK Herman, Pacific Worlds.


Kamehameha Schools, Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali


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