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Time Line for Hā‘ena

A chronology of events in Hā‘ena, from the birth of Kaumuali‘i to the creation of the Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA) is presented, drawing on multiple sources. This chronology includes relevant incidents both in Hā‘ena and in Kaua‘i more generally—and in some cases, in the Hawaiian Islands as a whole.

This is not a comprehensive time line, and recommendations for additions are welcome.


First millenium C.E.

People now known as menehune arrive on Kaua‘i, most likely from the Marquesas.


Tahitians arrive in the Hawaiian Islands.


Captain James Cook lands at Waimea, Kaua‘i, January 20.


Kaumuali‘i born in Wailua, Kaua‘i


Ka‘eo, father of Kaumuali‘i, is ruling chief of Kaua‘i. He is half-brother to Maui chief Kahekili.


Captain George Vancouver visits Kaua‘i.


Ka‘eo is killed on O‘ahu in a battle with one of Kahekili’s sons, Kalanikupule.


Kamehameha makes his first atttempt to conquer Kaua‘i, is forced back by storms and rough seas.


Kamehameha makes his second atttempt to conquer Kaua‘i, but an epidemic called ma‘i ‘ōku‘u (possibly typhoid or dystentery) sweeps O‘ahu and kills thousands. Kamehameha himself takes ill but survives, however his forces are depleted.

Kaumuali‘i's son George Humehume boards the ship Hazard and eventually arrives in New England.


Kaumuali‘i cedes sovereignty of Kaua‘i. Kamehameha unites the Hawaiian Islands into a kingdom.


Russian-American Company's ship Bering wrecks at Waimea. Kaumuali‘i takes possession, but agrees that the cargo does not belong to him.


German physician Georg Anton Schäffer, an agent of the Russian-American Company, arrives on Kaua‘i to retrieve goods from the Bering.


Fort Elizabeth was constructed in 1817 on the east bank of the Waimea River.


Kamehameha dies, his son Liholiho takes power after a battle with his cousin Kekuaokalani. Kamehameha's favorite wife Ka‘ahumanu becomes Kuhina Nui (chief advisor to the king) of the Hawaiian Kingdom.


First company of Congregationalist Missionaries from New England arrive in the islands, bringing George Humehume and three other Hawaiian youths


Liholiho visits Kauai on his yacht, "kidnaps" Kaumuali‘i, who is then married to Kaʻahumanu


Humehume leads an insurrection against Liholiho's chiefs. Kalanimoku—the resident representative for the crown--sends for reinforcements. Humehume's forces are defeated.


Wai‘oli Mission House established by William Patterson Alexander, and built in 1837.


Abner and Lucy Wilcox take up residence as missionaries at the Wai‘oli Mission House. They are the last missionaries to this place.


King Kamehameha III institutes the partitioning of lands, later known as the 1848 Mahele. Through these legal acts, Abner Paki gains most of Hā‘ena ahupua‘a.


William Harrison Rice, of the ninth company of missionaries, retires from Punahou School and moves to Kauai, where where he became manager for the Līhu‘e Plantation.


Abner Paki dies on June 13, leaving his lands in Hā‘ena to his daughter Bernice Pauahi Bishop.


Konia dies, leaving a large landed estate to Bernice Pauahi Bishop.


Bernice Pauahi Bishop sells Hā‘ena to W.H. Pease, a surveyor.


Aubrey Robinson purchases the entire island of Niʻihau from King Kamehameha V for US$10,000.


William H. Pease, a surveyor of the period (later identified by some as being the most inaccurate surveyor of the time), bought Hā‘ena for $1,200 from the Bishops.


After William H. Pease dies on June 29, 1871, Hā‘ena lands conveyed by the administrators of Pease's estate to William Kinney of Hanalei, Kaua‘i, who successfully bid $1,200 at the estate auction.


Kinney conveyed/covenanted with Kenoi D. Kaukaha and thirty-seven others known collectively as the Hui Kū‘ai ‘āina o Hā‘ena, the “organization to purchase land in Hā‘ena.” The land from that point on was owned and held in common by this group for close to a hundred years.


Mahuiki and Company of 30 natives are listed as "taro planters" at Hā‘ena. The company was said to have owned 900 acres of which 40 were in active cultivation.


Hawaiian Monarchy forcibly overthrown by a handful of non-Hawaiian businessmen. Efforts by the deposed Queen, Lili‘uokalani, to restore Hawaiian sovereignty were unsuccessful. U.S. President Cleveland chose not to annex the islands. The provisional government declared the independent Republic of Hawaii. After the Spanish-American War and the acquisition of the Philippines, President McKinley chose to annex the Hawaiian Islands, which became the U.S. Territory of Hawai‘i.


First U.S. Federal Census recorded at least 7 households in Hā‘ena.


The second U.S. Federal Census recorded at least 15 households in Hā‘ena.

The Robinson's (Alice Robinson, Miss Eleanor Robinson and Selwyn A. Robinson) acquired 8.9458 shares of the Hā‘ena Hui lands.


Though there are no known printed records of agricultural production in Hā‘ena during this period, there is no doubt that these industries flourished. During this period, also, cattle grazing was a prominent activity in Hā‘ena.


On April 1, a tsunami destroys Hā‘ena village, described as "a small year round population of Hawaiians, numbering about 60..." Nine dead and one missing.


Hui Kū‘ai ‘Āina members John Gregg Allerton and Paul G. Rice file a petition for partition and dissolution of the Hui. Three commissioners are assigned to propose a plan to give clear title through land courts to all holdings. The commissioners are also to equitably assign water rights and easement privileges.


Another tsunami strikes Hā‘ena.


Statehood: Hawai‘i's status changes from Territory to Fiftieth State.


Partition of the Hui Kū‘ai ‘Āina lands completed. Limahuli Valley is assigned to Juliet Rice Wichman, a member of the Hui who had long recognized the need to preserve and protect Limahuli. She immediately removed the cattle and began developing a garden.

April 11

Three commissioners submitt their reports proposing among many other things, that four parcels be transferred to Kaua‘i County (Maniniholo, Waiakanaloa and Waiakapalae caves and Lōhi‘au's house site). The County was tasked with the maintenance and preservation of the sites for the general public. Disregard of these responsibilities meant automatic transfer of the sites to the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.

Title to another parcel was given to John Gregg Allerton with the condition that he maintain and preserve a five-foot wide path for public use in accessing the heiau and hula grounds. Upon his death or conveyance of properties, title would automatically pass to the County. The State expressed the desire to acquire 40 acres of prime beach frontage for a public park; the land in question was held by the Robinsons who had already donated funds as well as land for road widening.

June 23

Four unawarded lots are auctioned to raise funds to cover legal costs of partition. The auction was limited to existing share-holders and $35,801 was netted.

Late 1960s -
early 1970s

Howard Taylor (brother of actress Elizabeth) acquired a large parcel of land within the park site. Taylor Camp, "a small community of shacks, lean-tos and plastic covered frame houses" was soon established by a transient "hippie" population. No sanitary facilities nor garbage disposal provisions over a period of time caused the State to eventually condemn the property which was then added to park acreage. Local residents claimed that the sanitation problems caused by the camp resulted in the disappearance of mullet and other fish that formerly had been plentiful in these waters.


Juliet Rice Wichman gifts the lower part of the Valley, now known as Limahuli Garden, to the National Tropical Botanical Garden. She leaves nearly 1,000 remaining acres to one of her grandsons, Chipper Wichman.


Chipper Wichman gives his acreage to the National Tropical Botanical Garden, thereby forming Limahuli Garden and Preserve.

Hawaii state legislature passes Hawai‘i Revised Statutes (HRS) §188-22.6, giving the Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) the authority to designate and manage community-based subsistence fishing areas (CBSFAs) to protect and reaffirm fishing practices customarily and traditionally exercised for purposes of native Hawaiian subsistence, culture, and religion.


Hā‘ena community members begin discussions to create the Hui Maka‘āinana o Makana. The Hui incorporates as a non-profit in 1999.


Governor Linda Lingle signed Act 241 into law, establishing a community-based subsistence fishing area for the ahupua‘a of Hā‘ena under Hawai‘i Revised Statutes (HRS) §188-22.9. A comprehensive participatory planning process gets underway in collaboration with the Hui Maka‘āinana o Makana and Limahuli Gardens and Preserve.


Governor David Ige signs into law the first ever Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area, at Hā‘ena.

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